Pre-Cancerous Cervical Changes - What They Mean and How Best to Treat Them

Cervical cancer is the second most prevalent type of cancer in women in India. However, it is also one of the most preventable types of cancer, if detected at the pre-cancerous stage. A Papanicolaou or Pap test is the most common method of screening for cervical cancer. This test determines whether pre-cancerous changes in the cervix have begun.

Precancerous changes in the cervix are actually quite common. Changes are determined to be pre-cancerous if the cervical cells appear abnormal under a microscope, depending on the abnormality and severity of the changes. Not all people with pre-cancerous changes of the cervix develop cancer. The two main types of cervical cell changes are abnormal squamous cells or abnormal glandular cells. Either type will need to be treated to prevent them from becoming cancerous.

Abnormal squamous cells

The Bethesda reporting system, referring to squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL), is most commonly used to grade abnormal squamous cells. These are classified as low grade (LSIL) or high grade (HSIL). Other reporting systems use cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical dysplasia. CIN is graded as CIN 1, 2 and 3.

LSIL is comparable to CIN 1 and only affects the surface cells of the lining of the cervix, accompanied by mild dysplasia. HSIL is comparable to CIN 2 and CIN 3 and occurs deeper in the cervical lining. CIN 2 dysplasia is considered moderate and CIN 3 dysplasia severe. CIN 3 is also classified as carcinoma in situ. These cells are more starkly distinct from normal cells in shape and size.

Abnormal glandular cells

Abnormal glandular cells are either atypical glandular cells (AGC) or adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS). AGC indicates that the abnormal cells have a higher risk of developing into cancer. It may also indicate underlying cancer. AIS means that pre-invasive cancer cells have been detected, but they have not yet spread into deeper cervical or surrounding tissue.

Mild changes to the cervix often disappear on their own and do not require treatment. However, it is difficult to predict which precancerous cells will or will not become cancerous later. This is why all precancerous changes are usually treated immediately upon diagnosis. Treatments may include loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) or other cone biopsy procedures, laser surgery, hysterectomy and cryotherapy. Cryotherapy is emerging as a viable and effective treatment option for pre-cancerous cervical cells. Meaning “cold therapy,” Cryotherapy is a technique where the body is exposed to extremely cold temperatures for several minutes.


Pregna’s CryoPop cryotherapy device has been developed by JHPIEGO, USA, for the treatment of precancerous cervical lesions. Pregna CryoPop uses solid carbon dioxide to destroy the abnormal tissues and lesions at temperatures lower than 50 degrees Celcius. The device has been designed to be used conveniently by doctors and trained technicians. It is easier to handle than other gas-based systems and also has a lower CO2 consumption. In addition, the device does not need to be connected to a gas cylinder while it is being used.


Smart Medical Buyer is a comprehensive platform that meets the needs of a wide range of medical equipment. It is the genuine seller of the Pregna CryoPop cryotherapy device in India. We also ship all over the country and are currently ensuring minimal contact packaging. For more details, visit